Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Morality Plays and their influence on Shakespeare Research Paper

Morality Plays and their influence on Shakespeare - Research Paper Example Depiction of medieval morality traditions is the hallmark of most of the Shakespearean traditions, whether tragedy or comedy. Morality is the dominant trait of the heroes in the works of Shakespeare, like Macbeth, Hamlet, Tempest, Twelfth Night, etc. The final outcomes/conclusion- of his dramas highlight a significant moral choice. With hard options left to the characters as for the moral order, the plots of his dramas attains new dimensions. How is the theme of morality explored in Shakespearean dramas and what techniques are used to show this? Some of his works are examined in this paper. Macbeth: Macbeth, a tragedy by Shakespeare (1992), has several violent incidents, with a strong undercurrent of morality relating to Macbeth’s violation of ethical norms prevailing in that era. Macbeth’s violation of the moral order with his pre-planned murder of Duncan indicates Shakespeare’s intricate representation of evil and the reaction to such deeds. Christian morality is put to severe test in this drama. In the initial stages of the drama, Macbeth is an honorable, brave soldier. But his encounters with witches cause a dent in his moral standards. It kindles the fire of ambition in him. His action of murder of King Duncan in order to enthrone himself as the King is a mean, evil action by moral standards. His loyalty is proved dubious. Initially he had set the highest standards of morality for him and his abidance in religious principles is total. One needs to read his soliloquy (I, IV, 12-28) to understand his clear-cut stand as to why he should not kill Duncan on three counts. He is "his kinsman," "his subject" and "his host." He pays highest tributes to his angelic qualities, which again indicates his inner moral inclinations. But the evil in Lady Macbeth intervenes to ill-advise Macbeth. She ridicules him that he is a coward, if he decides not to kill Macbeth. Macbeth is in a dilemma. As a soldier and as husband he does not desire to be labeled as a coward. His virtue and moral standards stand subjugated by his self-image and ambition. The moral dilemma doesn’t end with the murder of Duncan, but intensifies. He totally surrenders to the evil by challenging Fate and he kills Banquo and his descendants. One evil deed follows the other and he loses his power of discrimination and is engulfed in desire for power. His convictions are now â€Å"foul is fair and fair is foul," and thus he has become a morally bankrupt individual. In the end he pays the consequences for his immorality. Hamlet: The corrupted moralities in Hamlet’s moral choices have far-reaching consequences and ultimately lead to the devastation of the royal house of Denmark. The moral rule will not continue indefinitely, evil results follow in a time-bound manner. Every individual has to suffer the consequences in proportion to the intensity of such deeds. The negative vibrations generated by bad action will not go unpunished. The concept of reven ge is a pagan act that goes against the morality of Christianity. The approach of revenge with Hamlet’s order to kill Claudius by his father’s ghost is one such act. To commit this act, Hamlet goes through one of the worst moral dilemmas, and his fears about going to hell are genuine. Finally, Hamlet achieves his moral goal by exposing the guilt of Claudius

Monday, February 3, 2020

Are decisions made by universities directly affecting students Essay

Are decisions made by universities directly affecting students justiciable - Essay Example The key piece of legislation in NSW in respect to the Judicial Review of University academic decisions is the ADT, it is through this act it allows for unfair publicly decided decisions to be reviewed on the grounds of fairness and legitimacy. In fact this act is based on the commonwealth's, especially the English Legal System's, common law approach. It is not based on the merits of the case rather whether there has been a procedurally fair decision. Therefore if one wants to refer to case law it is best to refer to the binding precedents of case law from the Commonwealth. This will be discussed in the next section. There is one factor that this discussion needs to point out, which is under English Law Higher Education Institutions are legislated so that they are considered public institutions; however in Australia this is not the case so there is the problem of private v's public institutions which will be discussed in further in reference to national law. ... Ultimately, integrity in research requires leadership. If, in the wake of the Hall affair, our universities cannot ensure an enlightened and responsible ethos in their research enterprises they risk a loss of public confidence (Hall v UNSW [2003] NSWSC 669. These rules are a crux to limitations faced by private higher education institutions under Australian National Law, which will be discussed in the following section. Commonwealth System: Dicey's jurisprudential thought is central to the present system of constitutional and administrative law; it deals with the decision making process and the powers of parliament; the government; executive bodies; and the courts. The main theoretical concept that Dicey's theory hinges upon is that parliament is supreme; there is no authority within the British territories or extra-territorially that has more power than parliament. The courts cannot overturn statutes or parliamentary decisions as this would erode parliamentary sovereignty. However not all decisions made in the name of parliament may be legal, because the individual has not acted in accordance with the spirit of parliamentary decision of the statute enacted by parliament. Also executive decisions are delegated through the hierarchy to bureaucratic departments and agencies; as well as human error or bias resulting in unlawful decisions1. To counter this Dicey incorporated the concept of checks and balances into the legal and parliamentary system; whereby the judiciary can hear a case, concerning the decision of an executive body, which may be illegal or a breach of natural law; whereby judicial review is an essential demonstration of Dicey's rule of law which is creating a system

Sunday, January 26, 2020

The Development Of Modern Social Thought

The Development Of Modern Social Thought Karl Marx and Max Weber are two of the most influential thinkers in terms of modern social thought that there are. Both Marxs and Webers contribution to the development of social thought is in my opinion second to none. Marx and Weber wrote about modernity before it was in full swing, yet there works including such classics such as Marxs Communist Manifesto which is a familiar name to most, not only attempted to explain something near impossible to explain in such a way that most modern thinkers base their works on a criticism or celebration of their work. These two writers are of particular interest to because of how prolific they are and because they have both written so much on the subject, some of which is comparable and some of which is contrastable. Both Marx and Weber looked at similar themes including the reasons for modernity occurring, though their conclusions differ. Karl Marx leans towards the economic side of modernity whereas Max Weber, who writes after Marx with his fi ndings to improve on, believes that the impact of science, arts, and religion is a better explanation of modernity. Firstly, I will be looking at Karl Marxs contribution to modern social thought through his book The Communist Manifesto in which he looks at class struggle. In The Communist Manifesto, Marx explains how the friction between classes has always existed, as he remarks In ancient Rome we have patricians, knights, plebeians, slaves; in the Middle Ages, feudal lords, vassals, guild-masters, journeymen, apprentices, serfs; in almost all of these classes, again, subordinate gradations  [2]  . Marx goes on to put forward the idea that the bourgeoisie have always existed and do indeed exist today. He puts class struggle down to society itself which through its nature will have classes, an order. Marx explains todays class struggle as Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes, directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat.  [3]  Marxs understanding of class divide in the Communist Manifesto is clearly true and therefo re key in understanding society today. Marxs take on class divide can be summarised as being that class divide has always existed and will exist today, as he predicted, rather than the classes changing, he believes that characteristics of the classes change. Where as in history, the bourgeoisie would have owned farm, they will own businesses today and whereas the proletariats would have worked in farms, today they work for businesses owned by the bourgeoisie. Marxs understanding of there being two main classes, those in power and those in not, is important in modern social thought as all Marxists will use it to argue that there is a lack of equality and too large a divide between the two classes. Marx does not distinguish between individual situations, rather is a big supporter of the belief that there is no real equality for the proletariat and his voice is therefore used today by anyone voicing such an opinion. It can be argued that Marxs prediction of an uprising by the working class has come true in modern times. The working class has never had as many rights as it does today, with measures such as minimum pay and benefits ensuring that an unreasonable amount of power is not held by the ruling class, and that the working class have enough rights and voice to be ensured a decent standard of life. There were plenty of revolutions between the 18thC and 19thC, which are evidence of Marxs prediction of an uprising against the ruling class. Marx believes that the proletariat alone is a really revolutionary class  [4]  . This can be seen as a contribution to the understanding of modern society as it is true today, no other classes are seen to be revolting nearly as much as the working class who have been working on their rights for the last few centuries. As Marx also states, the ruling class have all the power and it is in their nature to ensure power is kept for future generations. Marx sa ys that the working class only achieve things such as a minimum wage law because the ruling class allow them to do so, in order to keep them happy and therefore deter them from revolting more. A significant manner in which Marx contributed to the understanding of modern society is through his explanation of market expansion. Marxs argument was that for the bourgouise to remain in power, they must constantly work at creating links between themselves to ensure a global rule  [5]  . Marx argued in the Communist Manifesto that the future would see a capitalist market grow to operate on a global scale through the increase of technology and communication. This idea has perhaps been the most significant contribution to understanding modern society by Marx. It is clear that what Marx predicted has become reality, with a global economy that we have today, with transnational cooperation operating worldwide. The behaviour of the ruling class in modern society reflects Marxs theory on keeping wealth within the minority of the population. Businesses still work in a hierarchical structure whereby a few at the top benefit from many at the bottom of the hierarchy who do not benefit fr om increase in profit, rather receive a fixed low wage. Finally, i have chosen Marxs contribution to the understanding of modern society through his literature on technology. In the Communist Manifesto, Marx looks at the effects of an introduction of technology and how it effects the labour market. The introduction of technology such as machinery ultimately means that a humans job is done by a machine. Robert J.Antonio describes machines as something that ultimately does jobs that were formerly done by the workman with similar tools  [6]  . This will decrease the need for human labour, which will ultimately mean there are more people for fewer jobs. An increase in availability of market labour and a decrease in need for market labour results in the ruling class being at liberty to alter the wages of the workforce. This sees as the workforce become a commodity  [7]  . Linked with a need for fewer labourers, the type of work changed to less laborious, jobs were suddenly possible to carry out through the pushing of a button. This me ant that a new work force was available for the ruling class to be exploited, women and children. This availability of a new workforce meant that the ruling class were more powerful than ever, as the family of a working man had now become the work force of the ruling. An introduction of a new labour force means that the ruling class suddenly controlled everything that matters to a working man, i.e. increasing the divide but more importantly cementing the existing control. The reduction in labour intensity of jobs due to technological and mechanical improvements meant that working hours could be increased. This brought with it an increase in productivity and if anything a reduced cost. Max Weber was similar to Karl Marx in that he too looked at ancient Rome and the structure of the ancient economy which he, like Marx found to have certain similarities with the structure of modern capitalism. Marx believed that modern society was more of a result of the economic changes that were seen in the 18thC and 19thC due to technological improvements. However, Weber believed that the change seen after medieval times i.e. modernity, were more so a result in a change of attitude of the worlds population. Weber noticed that if we lived in a capitalist economy before and ended up in medieval times, a change in society could not solely be due to economic change. Thus Weber looked at Eastern German agriculture in 1892. Webers finding in this research supported his belief that it was through the genuine will power of the proletariat that a change resulted. The findings of this research can be summarised as the work force having a true desire to work for them in order to retain more of the profit created by their work. Webers believe that the working class chose to want to do better is a key feature of modern society, the constant struggle for workers to better their situation. Webers understanding of capitalism, a key foundation of modernity is drastically different to that of Marx. Marx saw capitalism as a materialist economy based upon the will to acquire economic wealth. In contrast, Weber argues that the will to further ones economic standing is based on religious beliefs such as the Protestant and in particular Calvinist teachings  [8]  . The Protestant teachings are that everything that one does must be done in honour of God. Weber argues that it is this belief that is the cause people striving to do their best, be as productive as possible and generate as much wealth as possible. This dedication to giving everything cannot, according to Weber be explained by ownership relations, technology and advances in learning alone  [9]  . This attitude which Weber believes is a part cause for modernity itself is essential to the further existence of capitalism. In order for capitalism to survive, the working class must continue to have reason to work h ard and be productive, or the ruling class would not be able to live of them. This need for the work force to try their hardest true today and therefore another way in which Weber has contributed to the understanding of modern society. Weber goes on to suggest that the view point of Marx whereby capitalism is a result of solely economic change is Naive  [10]  and should be abandoned once and for all  [11]  this contribution to modern social thought is of interest because it offers an explanation as to why people work hard and how capitalism works i.e. capitalism depends and runs on the quality of input of the labour force. Max Weber believed that the increase in scientific knowledge was a key factor in creating modernity and modern social thought. Weber described the level of science that we have reached as valid  [12]  but noted that it only existed in the western world  [13]  . This idea was based upon Webers belief that such a structured theology was only present in Christianity, though he recognised that most fundamental knowledge did come from eastern faiths. This structured theology could be argued to have been left integrated in the religion from roman times when a form of capitalism coincided with Christianity. This structured way of thinking brought with it rationality which was in turn branded upon the foundations of western life. It is this rationalism that Weber offers as an alternative cause for modern social thought rather than Marxs suggestion of economics. To conclude, both Karl Marx and Max Weber have made vast contribution to modern social thought. Their works have been agreed and disagreed with since their creation, adapted and used to both prove and disprove arguments and theories. Their work is still relevant today as their contribution to understanding modern society such as key issues including class and employment have changed the course of history. Their contribution to modern social thought will continue to influence thinkers on modern social thought for centuries to come.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Collaboration Assessment Guide

Collaboration Assessment Guide Please complete this four part guide and submit for the Collaboration Lesson. Part One: Collaboration lesson/task description Describe the lesson or task you completed collaboratively in a paragraph consisting of five or more sentences. Part Two: Peer and Self Evaluation Rate each member of the team, including yourself, according to each of the performance criteria below.  ·3 = above average 2 = average 1 = below averageStudent Names|CooperationListened to and respected others and their opinions|ContributionContributed their fair share to the completion of the task or project; fulfilling their assigned duties|ParticipationConsistently spoke up, attended all meetings, fully participated, stayed on task, and offered relevant information|ResponsibilityCompleted all necessary work adequately and on time without needing reminders|FeedbackOffered appropriate and adequate feedback when necessary| |||||| ||||| |||||| |||||| |||||| |||||| Part Three: Self-Refl ection Respond to the following in two to three sentences each. What did you enjoy most about working with others on this lesson/task? Explain. How did your team deal with conflict? Explain. Do you feel others were happy with your participation in the lesson/task? Explain. What will you do differently, if anything, in your next online collaboration opportunity? Explain. Additional comments: Part Four: EvidenceProvide evidence of collaboration in the space below or in a separate document. Examples of evidence include, but are not limited to, the following:  ·Link to the team wiki, blog, Voicethread, or other web 2. 0 tool  ·Copy and paste below, attach, or provide a screen shot of the discussion thread from the blog, wiki, discussion area, instant message, email, etc.  ·Copy and paste or attach team project plan and final project  ·Any other specific evidence as listed with the collaboration lesson or task you completed

Friday, January 10, 2020

Foley

Foley effects are sound effects added to the film during post production (after the shooting stops). They include sounds such as footsteps, clothes rustling, crockery clinking, paper folding, doors opening and slamming, punches hitting, glass breaking, etc. etc. In other words, many of the sounds that the sound recordists on set did their best to avoid recording during the shoot. The boom operator's Job is to clearly record the dialogue, and only the dialogue. At first glance it may seem odd that we add back to the soundtrack the very sounds the sound recordists tried to exclude.But the key word here is control. By excluding these sounds during filming and adding them in post, we have complete control over the timing, quality, and relative volume of the sound effects. For example, an introductory shot of a biker wearing a leather Jacket might be enhanced if we hear his Jacket creak as he enters the shot – but do we really want to hear it every time he moves? By adding the fole y sound fx in post, we can control its intensity, and fade it down once the dialogue begins.Even something as simple as boots on gravel can interfere with our comprehension of the dialogue if it s recorded too loudly. Far better for the actor to wear sneakers or socks (assuming their feet are off screen! ) and for the boot-crunching to be added during Foley. How is Foley Done? Foley is usually performed by Foley artists. Ideally they stand on a Foley stage (an area with a variety of possible surfaces and props) in a Foley studio (a specialized sound studio), though any post production sound studio will do with a little modification.The Foley artists can clearly see a screen which displays the footage they are to add sound fx to, and they perform their sound effects while watching this creen for timing. The actions they perform can include walking, running, Jostling each other, rubbing their clothing, handling props, and breaking objects, all while closely observing the screen to ens ure their sound fx are appropriate to the vision. Increasingly, many simple Foley sound fx are done without Foley artists – the sound effects are stored electronically and performed by the post production sound engineer on a keyboard while watching the visual.Done poorly this type of â€Å"Foley† sounds bland and repetitive, and it is nowhere near as flexible as the real thing, but t is much cheaper than renting a Foley stage and paying Foley artists to create the foley sound effects. Why do we Bother with Foley? Without Foley, a film sounds empty and hollow – the actors seem to be talking in a vacuum. The sound recordist, if they did a good Job, has given us the dialogue and excluded everything else, but our films needs more than this for the picture to come alive.We need to hear the little sounds of clothes, furniture, etc – but we need to control those sound effects so they don't obscure any of the dialogue. Another historical film seems lifeless when it is screened without sound, and adding foley to it elps bring those long dead images to life. Next time you watch a history documentary that uses silent archival footage, listen closely and you should hear at least minimal Foley sound fx, mostly footsteps, behind the narration. Foley can also be used to enhance comedy or action scenes.Watch most comedy films and you'll notice that many of the sounds are enhanced for comic effect, and sometimes the Foley sound is the Joke. As for action, most fist fghts do not involve the actors really hitting each other, and even if they did we would not be able to record a satisfying punch sound. By punching and variously molesting such objects as cabbages, celery and sides of beef, Foley artists can record unique and much more ‘realistic' action sounds. What is Foley and Why Should You Care? What is Foley and Why Should You Care?Here's everything you need to know about Foley. Foley effects are sound effects that are easier and more efficie nt to perform to picture. You project the movie in a studio and one or two people actually perform the sound effects to the picture. The sound effects are recorded live and are used in the final movie. The most common Foley sound effects are foot steps and clothing rustle. Some specific effects are actually much easier to do in Foley than cutting them individually. In Finding Forrester, there were lots of scenes with basketballs.The main character was a high school basketball player. It was much easier for us to have the Foley artists do the basketball dribbling for the movie then to sync each basketball hit by itself. Foley is used mostly when you have to deliver a foreign mix of your movie. You use Foley footsteps when you can't use the footsteps on the production recordings because you have to remove the dialog so that it can be dubbed into whatever language a particular country uses. We had the basketball effects on the dialog (or production) tracks and they were in sync.If ther e was any conversation going on during any of the dribbling, then when it came time to deliver the foreign version of the sound mix, we couldn't use any of the production basketball effects. There was dialog on it. In the case of Far From Heaven, the Todd Haynes film, Todd wanted us to do all of the Foley footsteps so they sounded like they came from a sound library that was put together in the 1950s. In fact, he wanted all of his sound to sound like it was from the 1950s and this was a studio picture. That was a challenge. Any time you do a period film it's a challenge.I had to find telephone effects with bell ringers, typewriters, and real V8 automobile engines. Most sound libraries don't have these effects anymore. And finding the real thing can be tough. As a sound designer, you learn to be resourceful trying to find some of these effects. We went out and recorded some old automobiles to get some realistic sounds of heavy old car doors closing. I mean, let's face it, a 55 Buick door certainly sounds a lot different from a Honda door. But back to Foley. If you're doing a small ndependent movie, the odds are you're not going to use much Foley.With Kicking Bird, I did all of the Foley myself with two of the effects editors, and we recorded it effects right in the editing room. I knew exactly what I needed, so I Just did the effects that were absolutely necessary. I had decided all of the running sequences would be done to music so I didn't even worry about doing footsteps for the runners. That would have driven me crazy if I had to do all of that. I Just fgured out what I needed to get the Job done and did exactly what I needed. Since I was going to be doing some f the mixing myself, and after 20 years of doing this, I knew what I needed and what I didn't.It may have passed you by, but the packaging for cornflour is changing – and, in one tiny part of the British film industry, it has created panic. Foley artists are responsible for beefing up a film's background noise – to make it sound as â€Å"real† as dialogue. For instance, they recreate the sound of a bird flapping its wings by blowing up a pair of kitchen gloves and then slapping them together in time with the action on screen. And, by squeezing paper cornflour packets tightly together, they recreate the sound of somebody walking on now. But now theyre starting to pack cornflour in tins. And tins won't do.When directors shoot a film, theyre worried about capturing the action and the actor's voice. Nothing else. Not the sound of a sword scraping against a tree, or a court shoe tiptoeing across a marble floor. Well, the sword is probably made of plastic – and the â€Å"marble† floor is probably painted plywood. So, when it comes to the edit, things don't sound like they're supposed to. Which is where the Foley artist comes in – to make the film sound â€Å"real†. A few years ago Alex Joseph, one of the countrys premier Foley uperviso rs, was asked to recreate the sound of a head being chopped off for Ridley Scott's Kingdom of Heaven. Some people would have gone with a watermelon,† he tells me. â€Å"Or a frozen cabbage. † Instead, Joseph opted for green coconut: â€Å"The outside is fibrous. So it cuts like skin. And the hard shell sounds like bone. Inside is the Jelly, which sounds like blood. When you slice into it, it sounds Just like a human head. I imagine. † When Joseph is using organic material, he will buy or cut it on the day of recording. That's because, in the rarefied world of Foley, a plant that was picked two ays ago will sound different from one picked five days ago.For the scene in Harry Potter and the Goblet Of Fire, where Harry has to negotiate a living maze, Joseph says he went to great lengths to get â€Å"the sound of a privet maze and all its nuances – it had to sound alive and dangerous†. For Quantum of Solace, Joseph hired in some scaffolding and mocked u p a Tuscan roof with tiles that he bought on eBay. And, in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, he actually Jumped into a makeshift swimming pool with a sack of Nutrient Agar powder to make sure the chocolate river sounded thick enough. l was swimming about in the stuff all day,† he says. But it was very gloopy. I had to take four showers to get it all off. † Related Articles Sound of Hollywood could soon be virtual 030 Jul 2010 over 2 you 013 Jul 2005 The art of sound began in 1927 – when Universal employee Jack Foley helped turn the film studio's â€Å"silent† Show Boat into a full-on musical extravaganza. Because microphones could only pick up on dialogue, Foley had to add in the other sounds later. He projected the film onto a screen and recorded the footsteps, the movement, people. He acted out the film, all over again. Digital has made the business of Foley much easier.In the early days, the â€Å"sync† was fundamental – the sound had to m atch exactly what was going on. Now, it can be manipulated to fit. Technology has moved on, but Foley is still all about the â€Å"performance†. â€Å"A Foley artist can be playing a big brute one minute and a cute little girl the next,† says Joseph. â€Å"A footstep is not Just a footstep – it can be angry, happy, sad, confused, clumsy, slick, swaggering, light, heavy, wet, dry, young, old, male, female, slutty, sophisticated†¦ the list goes on. It's the performance that gets across the meaning to the viewers.And that performance could only ever come from the human mind. † Down a tiny lane, in the Buckinghamshire countryside, is the only studio in Britain to specialise solely in Foley. From the outside, Universal Sound looks like the home of a successful accountant. There's a swimming pool in the basement, where the audio effects for Narnia were recorded, and the sounds for the Harry Potter computer games. In the middle of the house is the heart of the operation – three studios, with bunker-thick walls. The main studio of Universal Sound looks like a student bedsit.In one corner there's a car door, eat and steering wheel. In another there's a kitchen. There's also a bathroom and a living room with a sofa. â€Å"Each Job brings a new prop,† says Foley artist Paul Hanks. And, by the looks of it, they never leave. There's a suit of armour that Hanks wore for the fantasy series Game of Thrones, while Simon Trundle, Foley mixer, hit him with a mace. Running along the wall of the studio, a Canadian miniseries is playing out in stop-start chunks. Hanks watches, and listens, picking out the important sounds.He then starts again, and records the Foley. Right now he's struggling with the sounds of able football. If this was a different project – with a different budget – he would have rented a table. Instead, he's ramming the handle of a broom into the spring mechanism of a toaster. â€Å"Too tinny,† s ays Trundle. There's no brief from the director of the Canadian miniseries. So it's up to Hanks and Trundle to decide what needs to be recorded – and how. The best Foley allows for five days to produce a 20-minute film sequence – Hanks needs to have this 50-minute episode finished today.The action culminates in a car, pulling up at speed, as a protagonist runs away. Hanks eaches for his box of â€Å"surfaces†, which contains everything from sand to gravel. He runs his suede gloves across Tarmac to recreate the sound of tyres. He then roots around in a box of shoes for â€Å"running†. He doesn't match what the protagonist is wearing on screen – they wouldn't sound right. miou don't often walk in leather-soled shoes,† says Hanks. â€Å"Theyre too click click. Desert boots are better. † Foley is the director's friend. Often more than 80 per cent of film dialogue isn't recorded â€Å"clean†.Maybe there was noise in the distance â₠¬  a car, for instance. Foley can cover that up. It can fill in blanks, too. â€Å"l remember on The Darling Buds of May,† says Hanks, â€Å"the story required there to be a horse in the stables behind the camera. But they had forgotten to film it. So they created the feeling' that there was another horse – with sound. † Foley can also be used to rectify a continuity problem. If an actor is holding a file, but then forgets to bring it back into shot, a Foley artist can insert the sound of the file being put away off camera.Joseph is in the studio next door, overseeing the Foley on Outside Bet, Bob Hoskins's latest offering. Joseph has been responsible for he Foley on a wide range of film and television. But he still finds it a weird world. You do hear some stories about people doing horrible things to vegetables. † Foley artists need imagination. â€Å"l go around Chinese supermarkets and select rather odd fruit and vegetables – things with odd te xtures,† says Joseph. He likes to use the scaly skin of a dragon fruit, for instance, as the scaly skin of a dragon. And for the floating books in Harry Potter, I went down the Charing Cross Road in London to buy a lot of antique books. A newer book Just wouldn't have made the same sound. Joseph even reworked classic Abba songs on Mamma Mia! , convincing a sceptical Benny Andersson to allow him to re-record the tunes with Foley artists cavorting in the dancers' clothes. Maybe it's because of his training as a psychologist, but Joseph is interested in subliminal messaging. â€Å"Like the way Derren Brown flashes subliminal images to tell you something. But I use sound instead. It's a bit of a dark art. And one that he's convinced will become ever more prevalent in the next few years, in computer games, for example. miou can really play with people's heads,† he says. mfou ould be implanting things that shouldn't be there. I set up characters before theyVe even appeared in a game. Bad guys make a nasty sound, so that when they run on screen, before you even hear them speak, youVe attached some psychological value to them. But you're given the information in your subconscious. † The work that Joseph is most proud of is the entire opening of Casino Royale.It's a high-energy sequence, involving Bond and a villain chasing across a mess of girders and construction materials. â€Å"Most of what dominates the soundtrack of that sequence is Foley,† says Joseph. It was quite a â€Å"literal† piece of Foley, and Joseph started by ordering four huge steel girders from a builder's merchant. It then took five Foley artists to get the girders into the studio. The team then stuck microphones onto the girders – one at each end – with microphones on two Foley artists who then â€Å"recreated† the chase sequence in the studio. It all went brilliantly,† says Joseph. â€Å"But I'm afraid the girders are still stuck in the studio. † Foley doesn't begin and end in the studio – artists like to listen out wherever they go. Which is why Joseph ended up recording his own dental ork – â€Å"l record anything that I don't have in the library. â€Å"When he was doing the Foley for Cold Mountain, the Anthony Minghella film set at the end of the American Civil War, Joseph hung out at a Wild West village near Gatwick. â€Å"As long as it was early in the morning,† he says, â€Å"before the planes started taking off. Foley is bespoke, which is why Foley artists hate the stock nature of off-the-shelf library sound effects. Take the so-called Wilhelm scream – a sound effect first used in 1951 for the film Distant Drums. It has become Hollywood's go-to shriek. It's a cinematic sound clich © – Joke among sound designers – and has now been used in well over 200 movies, including everything from Star Wars to Transformers. â€Å"If you watch 30 films,† says Jos eph, â€Å"l guarantee that you'll hear 100 sounds youVe heard before. After a while it's annoying.It's not Just the Wilhelm scream. There's a fox you hear in Just about every film – including Gladiator, in the middle of a desert, even though it's a fox from the UK. I suppose there's nothing wrong with it, but that's what I like about Foley. It's absolutely unique in every film. † ball hitting ball ball going into pocket Foley does not cover sounds like car engines, explosions or other mechanical stuff – driving a car around in the studio or blowing up a building is usually not possible although we have tried!We don't do birds, laser blasts, dog barks or rain storms either! These are the domain of the Sound FX Editor who draws upon a sampled Sound FX library and computer technology. Everything from helicopters to thunder can be layered and mixed in to an SFX track. FX Workstation While a Sound Editor can do very precise and repeatable effects, they have a harder time when it comes to footsteps for example, since every step is different and unique, he pace changes and the mood of the step is always different.With a good pair of shoes and years of practice, a Foley Artist can perform an actors walk perfectly on the first take while making it sound natural! In fact, one of the great ironies of Foley is that if you can tell it's Foley, then it isn't very good! My Job is to make the sound so real that the audience would never know it wasn't. C'est domage†¦ An Example†¦ Let's say in a scene the actor grabs his gun, walks to his motorcycle, starts it up and drives away†¦ Foley would recreate the sound of the leather Jacket and Jeans as the actor walks, ootsteps (heavy cowboy boots! , the gun pickup and handling, handlebar grab and bike moves – and maybe some key sounds as he puts them in the lock. 0 The Sound FX Editor would create the roar of the motorcycle engine starting and driving away, a tire squeal and background ambi ances (birds, wind etc. )0 In an ADR studio the actor would rerecord his line, â€Å"I'll be back†¦ â€Å", which was inaudible on location with the motorcycle engine running. The Dialogue Editor would conform the production and ADR into one. When played together, the tracks produce a seamless tapestry of sound.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Big History A New Form Of History - 1190 Words

Holley Trimble Paper 2-13 Dr. Stone November 12, 2014 Big History Big History, which was developed by David Christian and Bill Gates, is a new form of history that is continuously popping up in several high schools and colleges across the country. It has been quietly but rapidly growing throughout the course of the past three years due to its new concept of how history can be taught. Focusing on the universe and how everything is linked. Throughout my paper I will inform you of where Big History derived from, what Big History is and how it compares with conventional history, and the advantages of Big History along with the disadvantages. Big History which was already in a way developed by David Christian did not get its jump start†¦show more content†¦He also was prepared to personally fund the project outside of his foundation and that he wanted to be personally involved with the process. Gates told Christian to think about it and to email him if he was interested, which Christian did soon after. The two men began working on adapting the college course into a high school curriculum which would make it easy to teach to any high school student on a variety of learning levels. Gates insisted that the course include a strong digital component along with digital timelines. The site would be open to the public but have a password protected forum for teachers to trade notes and be able to update them if necessary. Gates decided that the course would be pitched to individual schools, rather than entire districts, that way it could grow and improve as it did so. In 2011, the Big History Project debuted in five high schools, but in the three years since Christian and Gates have accelerated its growth. In the fall of 2014 the course was offered free to over 1,000 schools across the country which will reach around 15,000 students. They hope to further expand their project so that it is offered everywhere in the country. Now to talk about what Big History is and how it is different from conventional history. Big History arose from a desire to go beyond the specialized and self-contained fields, it tries to grasp history as a whole, looking for mutual themes across numerous time scales in history. It is

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

The Ethical Behavior Of Stakeholders - 771 Words

IV. The Rights and Obligations of Stakeholders Including Individuals and Organizations That Have Potentially Causing Forest and Land Fire in Indonesia There are causative factors of land and forest fire that frequently occurred in Indonesia. The factors are weather symptoms of El Nino, attitude that do not heed government warnings, and law enforcement for forest fires actors that are still weak. Each of this factor related to the ethical behavior of stakeholders. Business ethics are ways to do business, which cover all aspects relating to individuals, companies, industries and communities or can be called as stakeholders. According to Boylan, they include how to conduct business fairly, in accordance with applicable law, and does not depend on the position of individuals and companies in the community. According to utilitarian approach, any action should be based on the consequences. Therefore, business action should give maximum benefit to the community, but does not harm and with the lowest possible cost. According to Ministry for National Development Planning, some motives of the actors behind forest and land fire because b urning will simplify and accelerate the work to clear the land, operational cost savings in land clearing, eliminating waste timber on, minimize or prevent the occurrence of pests of plants and also to improve soil quality as efforts to prepare in planting process. Moreover, the motifs are more widely used for the purpose of expansion and orShow MoreRelatedLeadership As A Global Organization1335 Words   |  6 Pagesproduces the peak performance for the organization (Khan, 2016). As each leader builds and establishes a unique adaptation of characteristics, each leadership style may be different and specifically designed for the needs of the employees’, internal stakeholders, and the organizational needs. 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